Tag Archive | Preaching

Expositor’s Conference 2009 – Tuesday, Sept 28 Session 5 and 7

Expositor’s Conference 2009
The Sacred Desk:
A History of Expository Preaching from the Reformation to the Present

Session 5 – The Preaching of the 19th Century (Dr. Steven Lawson)

Liberalism and higher criticism attacked the Bible in the 19th Century. Karl Marx and Charles Darwin damaged the purity of doctrine. Charles Finney perverted the gospel. Mormonism, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and Unitarianism all took blows at Biblical preaching. Yet God also raised up an army of expository preachers from the Second Great Awakening.

The Preaching of Archibald Alexander

Archibald Alexander was a Presbyterian Preacher who became the first professor at Princeton Seminary – a preacher to train preachers.

What defines the preaching coming from Princeton Seminary in the 19th Century?

1. experiential preaching – we believe what we preach. A firm confidence in the reality of what we preach. A preacher is a living epistle of the word of God. We cannot impart what we do not own.

2. earnest preaching – no levity. But no coldness or indifference. No playing games. Not just a vocation.

3. practical preaching – application of commonly-received truths. Preaching to the whole man.

4. authoritative preaching – as an ambassador of Christ. But not overbearing or dictatorial. Speaking the very words of God Himself.

5. evangelistic preaching – preach with a love for sinners.

The Preaching of Charles Haddon Spurgeon

What can we say about the preaching of Spurgeon?

1. An unwavering commitment to God’s word – we need more of God’s word in every sermon. I have never had an original thought.

2. A burning passion for Jesus Christ – the best sermon is one that is the fullest of Christ. A simple sermon with Jesus in it cannot fail.

3. A complete reliance upon God’s Spirit – what the Spirit would do in him, through him, and to those who heard him speak.

4. A fervent passion in preaching – get on fire for God and people will come to watch you burn. It is our dull sermons that will haunt us on our deathbed.

5. A bold audacity in the pulpit – “I yield to none. I preach what I like, when I like, as I like.”

6. A fixed belief in God’s sovereignty

7. An evangelistic zeal for souls – “My main business is the saving of souls.”

8. A sober weightiness in his preaching – Spurgeon anguished over missing the mark even once in his sermons.

Session 7 – The Preaching of the 20th Century (Dr. Steven Lawson)

We have come to the final session of the conference – Tuesday night at 6:30 PM. It will be interesting to see if Dr. Lawson goes back and picks up any of the material from Session 5 (19th Century Preaching). If he does, it will be entered above where it belongs. The preachers included in the program were C.H. Spurgeon and Archbald Alexander (who I have never heard of). Holding steady at around 100 people. We begin with three songs. I have never heard any of these: “Because We Believe”, “Saved By Grace” and “Thy Grace Alone, O God”. The music leader is Keith Phillips, by the way. Reminds me somewhat of the music selections at Grace Life Shoals, but presented a bit different.

Dr. Lawson presented preachers from the 19th Century during this session. Notes are presented above in Session 5. Then after a short break, Dr. Lawson presented Dr. Martyn Lloyd Jones.

The Preaching of Dr. D. Martyn Lloyd Jones

The preaching of Martyn Lloyd Jones is marked by deduction, argument and appeal. This is all part of expository preaching. Not just a running commentary. Not just word studies.

Keys to preaching as pointed out by Martyn Lloyd Jones

1. high view of the pulpit – something to which a man is called. It is forced upon you.

2. high view of the scripture – read your Bibles systematically, not just to find text for a sermon.

3. high view of God

4. high view of theology – preaching is theology on fire.

5. high view of the Holy Spirit – if there is no power, there is no preaching.

6. high view of logical order – a sermon should have a definite form, in the sense of a musical symphony. It should be differentiated from everything else. God is a God of order. Symmetry, balance, form.

7. high view of earnestness – a preacher must be a serious man. Nothing light, superficial, or trivial. But not dull or boring.


Expositor’s Conference 2009 – Tuesday, Sept 29 Sessions 5 & 6

The Preaching of George Whitefield

Dr. Lawson did not get to George Whitefield before lunch. So before beginning Session 5, Dr. Lawson spent some time discussing the preaching of George Whitefield. Footnote: Dr. Lawson spent the entire time on George Whitefield.

The doctrines of grace catapulted Whitefield into preaching in a powerful way. Other men existed, Whitefield truly lived.

What can we learn from Whitefield’s preaching? Where did the power of Whitefield come from?

1. singular devotion to Jesus Christ – Whitefield studied the scriptures on his knees

2. uncompromising gospel – he rounded off no corners

a. read “The Conversion of Zacchaeus” by Whitefield. This can be found at http://www.biblebb.com/files/whitefield/GW035.htm

3. a passionate fervor – he preached as no one else was preaching at that time. “The church is asleep. Only a loud voice will awake it from its slumber.” He introduced a new manner of preaching.

4. transcendent theology – no preacher can be stronger than his doctrine

5. an evangelistic thrust – not content to just plant or till. Calvinism and evangelism are not incompatible.

6. an indomitable spirit – out to the highways and hedges

7. a supernatural empowering – the ability was not in Whitefield. He was a weak vessel.

8. self-effacing humility – God resists the proud but gives grace to the humble.

9. The greatness of his godliness

God, would you raise up a George Whitefield one more time among us? And would we listen to him if you did?

Next year’s conference has been scheduled for September 27-28, 2010. Dr. R.C. Sproul and Dr. Steven Lawson will be the featured speakers next year. Early registration is $99.

Session 5 – The Preaching of the 19th Century (Dr. Steven Lawson)

Session 6 – Question and Answer Session
(Dr. Steve Lawson and Dr. Joel Beeke)
Tuesday afternoon at 3:30 PM was a question and answer session with Dr. Lawson and Dr. Beeke. Microphones were set up in the sanctuary for people to ask questions. This was after a song session which included a song I have never heard – “Jesus I My Cross Have Taken”, sung to the tune of “Come Thou Fount of Every Blessing”.

Jesus, I my cross have taken,
All to leave and follow Thee.
Destitute, despised, forsaken,
Thou from hence my all shall be.
Perish every fond ambition,
All I’ve sought or hoped or known.
Yet how rich is my condition!
God and heaven are still my own.

Let the world despise and leave me,
They have left my Savior, too.
Human hearts and looks deceive me;
Thou art not, like them, untrue.
O while Thou dost smile upon me,
God of wisdom, love, and might,
Foes may hate and friends disown me,
Show Thy face and all is bright.

Man may trouble and distress me,
’Twill but drive me to Thy breast.
Life with trials hard may press me;
Heaven will bring me sweeter rest.
Oh, ’tis not in grief to harm me
While Thy love is left to me;
Oh, ’twere not in joy to charm me,
Were that joy unmixed with Thee.

Go, then, earthly fame and treasure,
Come disaster, scorn and pain
In Thy service, pain is pleasure,
With Thy favor, loss is gain
I have called Thee Abba Father,
I have stayed my heart on Thee
Storms may howl, and clouds may gather;
All must work for good to me.

 Soul, then know thy full salvation
Rise o’er sin and fear and care
Joy to find in every station,
Something still to do or bear.
Think what Spirit dwells within thee,
Think what Father’s smiles are thine,
Think that Jesus died to win thee,
Child of heaven, canst thou repine.

Haste thee on from grace to glory,
Armed by faith, and winged by prayer.
Heaven’s eternal days before thee,
God’s own hand shall guide us there.
Soon shall close thy earthly mission,
Soon shall pass thy pilgrim days,
Hope shall change to glad fruition,
Faith to sight, and prayer to praise.

The first question was in regards to the recoveries made by New Calvinism. What else needs to be recovered? And what are the consequences of these not being recovered? Dr. Beeke answered this question by starting with the praise of recovering the five ‘Solas’, actually six, adding “Sola Spiritus”, “by the Spirit alone”. First, we still lack Calvinist reformed worship. Our worship needs to catch up with our soteriology. Second, we need more emphasis on holiness of life – spending too much time on things with too little profit. Third, we do not pray like the Puritans and Reformers. Fourth, we need to engage people one-on-one. Fifth, we need to adopt proper confessions of faith.

The second question was in regards that the way forward is by looking back. How can we properly attack reading the Puritans? And how can we delve into the Puritans with limited time issues? Dr. Beeke answered this question. A huge library is not to be threatening. Start by filing by subject. Set aside time each day for just reading – something meaty and weighty. And always be reading a biography. Dr. Lawson added an answer as well. He said that we should be reading in order to teach what we read to others. Dr. Beeke’s book “Meet the Puritans” would be a great place to start.

The third question regarded the qualifications for deacons. What does the “husband of but one wife” mean in regards to far distant past divorce? Dr. Beeke answered this question. He said the command was made because of polygamy. But today, we need to make application in this in regards to the issue of divorce and the lifestyle of the divorced party. Reformers stood by the innocent party, that they should never suffer because of actions of the guilty party.

The fourth question regarded doing the work of the evangelist and what the church needs to do today. Are we doing a good job? What should we be doing? Dr. Lawson answered this question. The gospels do not present a canned approach to evangelism. We need people to be acquainted with the gospel and we need people who are aware of whom they are talking to. We also need to do the work of the evangelist in our own congregations.


Expositor’s Conference 2009 – Tuesday, Sept 29 Sessions 3 & 4

Session 3 – The Preaching of the Puritans (II) (Dr. Joel Beeke)

Onto day 2 of the 2009 Expositor’s Conference. It’s 9:00 a.m. Tuesday morning, September 29. The crowd stands at about 100 this morning. We begin with three songs: “Thy Word is My Delight”, “Be Thou My Vision” and “How Firm a Foundation”. Joel Beeke began with a commercial for Reformation Heritage Books, Banner of Sovereign Grace Truth and the Puritan Reformed Journal.

Dr. Beeke began Part II of the Preaching of the Puritans with 2 Timothy 4:1-5. And then moved into more points beyond those he covered last night.

The Plainness of Puritan Preaching

This refers to very personal preaching, directed at every single hearer. As if their name was inserted in the sermon. Plain preaching is aimed at adults and children. Yet it still covers great theological terms. Arrows are never shot over heads, but at hearts.

A. Plainness involves organization of the sermon:

1. Give the meaning of the text in the context – exegetical

2. Teach the doctrine made known in the text – doctrinal

a. scripture must dictate the emphasis of the sermon

b. preaching must instill appreciation for every spiritual doctrine

c. preaching must cover a huge variety of topics

d. preaching should be didactic (teaching)

3. Make application to life – applicatory – how do we use the text?

a. no one should be able to escape the applications. Seven types of hearers:

i. ignorant and unteachable unbelievers

ii. ignorant but teachable unbelievers

iii. some knowledge but are not humbled (proclaim the law to these people)

iv. the humbled but unconverted (proclaim the gospel to these people)

v. believers (proclaim doctrines to these people)

vi. fallen believers (proclaim self-examination to these people)

vii. mixed group

b. countering error

c. exhortation – means and help to perform

d. rebuke sin, stir up hatred for sin, dread of the consequences of sin

e. comfort

f. self-examination of our spiritual condition

g. applying truths to the glory of God

B. Plainness involves plain delivery.

C. Plainness involves plain hermeneutics.

a. words

b. context

c. reasonable thinking

d. scripture interprets scripture

e. literal interpretation

f. proper handling of figures of speech

g. perspicuity of scripture

h. illumination of the Holy Spirit

D. Plainness involves dependency on the Holy Spirit.

E. Plainness involves personal holiness.

a. simple lives

b. lives devoted to God

The Program of Puritan Preaching

The Puritans had a five-prong program for powerful preaching:

1. The Preaching Itself

a. experiential preaching – helping the hearer to experience the text

b. discriminatory preaching – vital communion with Christ

2. Lectureships – people other than pastors who did nothing but preach and teach

3. Prophesyings – almost like a conference on a single biblical text (see 1 Corinthians 14:29)

4. Books of Sermons

5. Ministerial Training

The Passion of Puritan Preaching

1. Puritans loved the gospel and loved to preach the gospel.

2. Puritans loved to preach. They loved to prepare sermons.

3. Puritans loved the people that they preached to. “Both eyes fixed on the people, heart fixed on God.”

Session 4 – The Preaching of the Great Awakening (Dr. Steven Lawson)

1662 – The Great Ejection- 2000 Puritan preachers were ejected from their pulpits in England.

1730’s-1740’s – The Great Awakening. Preaching was the heart and soul of the Great Awakening. America was born out of the flames of the Great Awakening.

What were the distinguishing marks of the preaching of the Great Awakening?

1. High view of theology

2. High view of God (sovereignty)

3. High view of orthodox doctrine

4. High view of the Lordship of Jesus Christ

5. Low view of man (depravity) “What can a dead man do?”

6. Regeneration and the new birth

7. Salvation is of the Lord

The Preaching of Jonathan Edwards

What was it about Edwards’ preaching that caused such a response among the people who heard him?

1. God-centered obsession. Edwards had drunk deeply from the reformers.

2. Word-dominated message. Sola Scriptura. Always expounding a text from the word of God. The entire Bible brought to bear.

3. Doctrinally steep exposition – depth of his subject matter.

a. question and answer

b. thesis and antithesis

4. Plain preaching

a. distinctiveness and clarity of thought

b. remarkably compelling

c. sincerity

5. Burning intensity

a. deep solemnity

6. Practical application

7. Vivid analogies, images, similes, metaphors, illustrations

8. A constant gaze on eternity – the certainty of heaven and hell


Expositor’s Conference 2009 – Monday, Sept 28

Expositor’s Conference 2009

The Sacred Desk:
A History of Expository Preaching from the Reformation to the Present

September 28-29
Christ Fellowship Baptist Church
Mobile, Alabama

Pastor: Dr. Steven J. Lawson


Dr. Steven J. Lawson
Dr. Joel Beeke

Berean Husband is reporting back “almost” live from the 2009 Expositor’s conference at Christ Fellowship Baptist Church in Mobile, Alabama. We have wireless internet access in the sanctuary here, so I’m typing notes into Word and then emailing them back during the breaks to Berean Wife to post. The program says that the conference audio will be available for download shortly after the completion of the conference at Christ Fellowship Baptist Church.

It’s Monday night just before 6:30 p.m. The sanctuary here seats about 600 comfortably, plus a choir loft of around 30 seats. Nothing contemporary here. There are stained glass windows, pews, a cross over the baptistery. The program says there will be a song service before each session. The first song is ‘A Mighty Fortress is Our God.’ It’s about three minutes until the first session begins. There are around 150 or 200 people here in the sanctuary. They still use an organ and piano here.

Session 1 – The Preaching of the Reformers: Martin Luther and John Calvin (Dr. Steven Lawson)

The best way to learn expository preaching is to learn from the examples of great men. That is the purpose of this conference – reformers, puritans. To examine the preaching that sparked the Great Awakening.

The Reformation of the 16th Century was the greatest historical event since the foundation of Christianity. The Reformers went back to the sacred scriptures – Sola Scriptura. Preaching was the gas that fed the fire of the Reformation, a relationship of mutual dependence.

The Preaching of the Reformation

Broadus notes four marks of Reformation preaching:

1. A revival of preaching itself – bringing back the centrality, the primacy, of preaching

2. A revival of Biblical preaching – clear exposition of scripture. Calvin exposited the Bible like no one had for 1000 years.

3. A revival of controversial preaching – the totality of the scriptures were being preached. No doctrine left untaught, and that brings controversy. Living faith and definite truth brings controversy when living side by side with evil. Sacred cows were slaughtered in the pulpit. Every true revival is born in controversy and leads to more controversy.

4. A revival of preaching on the doctrines of grace – all in-depth expository preaching of the Bible inevitably leads to the doctrines of grace – Sola Gratia. A resurgence of inerrancy of the scriptures inevitably leads to a resurgence of the doctrines of grace.

The Preaching of Martin Luther

First of all and chiefly Martin Luther was a preacher. Spurgeon says “Why stoop to be a king when God has called you to be a preacher?” The Reformation completely changed the public worship service. And the primary change was to bring the sermon to the forefront of worship.

What are the marks of Luther’s preaching?

1. Any teaching that does not square with scripture must be rejected – Sola Scriptura. Invest everything in God’s word. It is disgraceful for a preacher to desert his text.

2. Plain delivery – easily understood by the common man. An eye for the young people, for children, for servants.

3. Fiery passion – this was Luther’s temperament. Luther said “The gospel should not be written but screamed.”

4. Unflinching boldness – did not worry about what might make him unpopular.

5. Compelling rhetoric – airtight logic

6. A guardian of the gospel – a preacher must be both a soldier and a shepherd.

7. Systematic preaching

The Preaching of John Calvin

John Calvin was the exegete of the Reformation. He was the king of commentators. But chiefly, Calvin was a preacher. But he was totally different from Luther. He was shy and retiring, but was thrust into the spotlight by the providence of God. Theodore Beza said of Calvin “his every word weighed a pound.

What are the marks of John Calvin’s preaching?

1. Biblical preaching – Sola Scriptura (see James 3:1) – and nothing but the Bible

2. Sequential preaching – expository, verse by verse, phrase by phrase, the full counsel of God. Difficult doctrines could not be overlooked. Long books were covered by upwards of 200-300 consecutive sermons.

3. Lively preaching – with energy. Calvin preached only with a Hebrew and Greek text before him.

4. Exegetical preaching – historical context, original languages, direct interpretation

5. Relevant preaching – preaching to real people with real needs – edify with the Word of God. Practical preaching.

6. Evangelistic preaching.

7. Doxological preaching. Go to the last paragraph of most all of Calvin’s sermon – “Let us fall before the majesty of our great God.

Session 2 – The Preaching of the Puritans (I) (Dr. Joel Beeke)

Puritan writings are, for the most part, repackaged sermons. The 16th-17th Century was the “golden age” of preaching. There is a hunger for the preaching of the Puritans today. Puritans were those ejected from the Church of England or who worked to reform the Church of England to embrace the doctrines of grace. Puritan preaching aims directing the whole word of God to the whole of a person’s life.

What drove the need for Puritanism?

1. The need for Biblical preaching

2. The need for personal piety

3. The need to restore simplicity to the Church

The Primacy of Puritan Preaching

1. The character of preaching – changing thinking and altering wills to convert sinners and sanctify saints. “Every sermon must be dressed in the mirror of the word of God.”

2. The necessity of preaching – how to preach and how to listen to sermons. Preaching is God’s grand converting ordinance. Seldom is anyone saved apart from preaching. We must preach or perish.

3. The dignity of preaching – a mere man can be the ambassador of the Almighty. And that man must be called by God.

4. The momentousness of preaching – each sermon should be the best sermon ever preached. Every sermon puts a man closer to heaven or closer to hell.

The Power of Puritan Preaching

How Puritan preaching differed from Anglican preaching:

1. Anglicans disdained the importance that Puritans placed on preaching. Anglicans placed importance on other means and ordinances, such as homilies and scripted prayers.

2. Puritans preached to the whole man – mind, conscience, heart.

a. The mind – rational, biblical logic. A mindless gospel fosters a spineless gospel.

b. The conscience – beat every bush behind which the sinner hides

c. The heart – ruling the heart passionately.



SBC Convention: Five Motions Involve Mark Driscoll

Motions: Messengers endorse GCR task force, criticize Driscoll’s entity influence

Two motions were referred to all SBC entities:

— that “all SBC entities should monitor” funds spent in “activities related to or cooperative efforts with Mark Driscoll and/or the Acts 29 organization” and entity heads should submit a report of expenditures to appear in the 2010 Book of Reports, submitted by Kent Cochran, a messenger from Calvary Baptist Church in Republic, Mo.

— that SBC entities avoid “inviting event speakers” who “are known for publicly exhibiting unregenerate behavior … such as cursing and sexual vulgarity, immorality, or who publicly state their support for the consumption or production of alcohol,” submitted by Ida South, a messenger from First Baptist Church in Mathiston, Miss.

On the recommendation of the Committee on Order of Business, Hunt ruled several motions “not in order.”

The committee chairman’s, Render, said three resolutions were not in order because of reflecting harshly on particular individuals.

— that author Mark Driscoll’s books be removed from LifeWay Christian Bookstores because of his “reputation for abusive and ungodly language and … promotions of sex toys on his church web site,” submitted by Jim Wilson, pastor, First Baptist Church in Seneca, Mo.”We need to live holy lives and bringing this man to our college campuses and promoting his books in the bookstore … I believe is a violation of Scripture.”

— that messengers encourage all SBC entities “to refrain from inviting event speakers” who engage in “cursing and sexual vulgarity, or who publicly state their support for the consumption or production of alcohol,” submitted by Larry Reagan, pastor, Adams Chapel Baptist Church in Dresden, Tenn.

A motion by Brian LeStourgeon, pastor of First Southern Baptist Church in Camp Verde, Ariz., sought to have Mark Driscoll “address the concerns of his accusers” at the 2010 annual meeting. Render said the committee declined LeStourgeon’s motion since it could have put the Convention in the role of exercising church discipline.

At least some are seriously questioning Mark Driscoll and his language in the pulpit. It is a shame though that nothing will be done until next year. What is there to think about?  Hopefully this will serve as a wake up call to Mark Driscoll and his church.

Where are the men like this taking a stand for their Lord and their families I’ve had it with Mark Driscoll and his mouth. Now it’s personal!

If only the SBC would take a stand.


What Are You Bringing Those Starving For God?

“In the days of Nero there was great shortness of food in the city of Rome, although there was abundance of corn to be purchased in Alexandria. A certain man who owned a vessel… noticed many hungry people straining their eyes toward the sea, watching for the vessels that were to come from Alexandria with corn. When these vessels came to the shore, one by one, the poor people wrung their hands in bitter disappointment, for on board the galleys there was nothing but sand which the tyrant emperor had compelled them to bring for use in the arena. Then the merchant… said to his shipmaster, ‘Take thou good heed that thou bring nothing back with thee from Alexandria but corn; and whereas aforetime thou hast brought in the vessel a measure or two of sand, bring thou not so much as would lie upon a penny this time… for these people are dying, and now we must keep our vessels for this one business of bringing food for them.

Alas, I have seen certain mighty galleys of late loaded with nothing but mere sand of philosophy and [entertainment], and I have said within myself, ‘I will bear nothing in my ship but the revealed truth of God, the bread of life so greatly needed by the people. “


Charles Spurgeon as quoted in Our Sufficiency in Christ by John MacArthur


Sound Doctrine, Sound Words – Phil Johnson

Sound Doctrine, Sound Words (Part 1)

This morning I want to look at two verses in Titus 2—verses 7-8. This is an admonition from Paul to Titus, his friend, partner, protege, and true son in the faith. Titus is one of the unsung heroes of the early church—a young pastor whose faithful support and constant behind-the-scenes labor made him extremely precious to Paul. Paul writes to Titus with these instructions (Titus 2:7-8): “Show yourself in all respects to be a model of good works, and in your teaching show integrity, dignity, and sound speech that cannot be condemned, so that an opponent may be put to shame, having nothing evil to say about us.”

I chose that text, frankly, because I’m deeply concerned about the tendency of so many pastors lately to employ profanity, crude and obscene words, vile subject matter, carnal topics, graphic sexual imagery, erotic language, and filthy jokes. Most of you, I know, are aware of the trend I’m talking about. I’m tempted to call it the pornification of the pulpit. The justification usually given is that coarse language and sexual themes are the tools of contextualization. It’s a way to make us sound more relevant. Lots of voices in the church are insistent that this is absolutely essential if we want to reach certain segments of our culture. ….

Sound Doctrine, Sound Words (Part 2)

One more thing about contextualization. (I spoke on this subject at last year’s Shepherds’ Conference): If your approach to contextualization is designed mainly to make you fit comfortably into a pagan culture—then you have an upside-down view of what Paul meant when he spoke of becoming all things to all men so that he might by all means win some. …

Sound Doctrine, Sound Words (Part 3)

There are two kinds of profanity every Christian needs to avoid. One is what the Bible calls foolish and filthy talk—coarse, obscene, smutty words that usually make reference to private bodily functions. The other is every kind of irreverence, ranging from that which trivializes sacred things to the full-on blasphemy of using the Lord’s name in vain.

Scripture is not silent on such things. These are not gray areas. Blasphemy is a grievous sin, and that includes all kinds of flippancy when we use the Lord’s name or talk about that which is sacred. Do a study of the third commandment and pay careful attention to all the things Scripture treats as a misuse of the Lord’s name. Once you understand what the Bible says about flippant irreverence, if you’re not compelled to eliminate every kind of joking about sacred things, you must have a heart of stone. …


What’s In Your Library?

The Preacher’s Library By Jay Adams

You used to be able to tell a lot about a preacher—and about his preaching—simply by walking into his library. If it was filled with catchy titles, how-to manuals, frothy experience-oriented fluff, as well as second-rate commentaries, you could know that isn’t the place to hang your hat as a church member. But things have changed. Now, a man can have an entire library on a computer’s disc that includes volumes that were once inaccessible, and with translations galore at his fingertips. It’s has become very hard to judge a man by his books (unless he‘s an old foggy like some of us), because all of the good stuff can be hidden away in a disk holder!